Compact Online Reference Encyclopedia (CORE)

Looking for information on a specific topic, training, rule, or process? Through one search here, you can find the information you need from ICAOS’ white papersadvisory opinions, bylaws, policies, Hearing Officer's Guidetraining modulesrules, helpdesk articles and the bench book. All results are cross-referenced with links to make navigation easy and intuitive.

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Section 1. Commission Staff and Offices. The Commission may by a majority of its Members, or through its executive committee appoint or retain an executive director, who shall serve at its pleasure and who shall act as secretary to the Commission, but…
On Wednesday, May 16, 2018 one new enhancement was launched in ICOTS. This is the seventh of several enhancement releases to take place during FY 2018. The description of the change is as follows: 1.) Prevent two people from working on the same activity…
Understanding the legal nature of an interstate Compact begins with this basic point: interstate Compacts are formal agreements between states that exist simultaneously as both (1) statutory law, and (2) contracts between states. The contractual nature…
An interstate Compact is not a “uniform law” as typically construed and applied. Unlike interstate Compacts, uniform laws are not contracts; a state adopting an interstate Compact may not select provisions of an interstate Compact to adopt; and, a state…
Compacts differ from administrative agreements in two principal ways. First, states, as sovereigns, have inherent authority to enact Compacts. See Rhode Island v. Massachusetts, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 657, 725 (1838). Thus, states do not need any express…
One of the axioms of modern government is a state legislature’s ability to delegate rulemaking power to an administrative body. This delegation of authority extends to the creation of an interstate commission through an interstate Compact. See Hess v.…
The ICAOS operates under Congress’ consent in the Crime Control Act of 1934, 4 U.S.C. § 112 (2012).
Once Congress grants its consent to a Compact, the general view is that it may not be withdrawn. Although the matter has not been resolved by the U.S. Supreme Court, two federal circuit courts of appeal have held that congressional consent, once given, is…
Because Compacts are statutes and contracts, courts interpret interstate Compacts in the same manner as interpreting ordinary statutes and by applying contract law principles. PRACTICE NOTE: No court has explained when to apply statutory construction…
Where state law and a Compact conflict, courts are required under the Supremacy Clause (for Compacts with consent) and as a matter of contract law to apply the terms and conditions of the Compact to a given case. The fact that a judge may not like the…
In Texas v. New Mexico, the Supreme Court sustained exceptions to a Special Master’s recommendation to enlarge the Pecos River Compact Commission, holding that one consequence of a Compact becoming “a law of the United States” is that “no court may order…
For additional information on interstate Compact law and interstate Compacts generally, see MICHAEL L. BUENGER, JEFFREY B. LITWAK, MICHAEL H. MCCABE & RICHARD L. MASTERS,, THE EVOLVING LAW AND USE OF INTERSTATE COMPACTS 2d ed. (ABA Publ’g 2016) and…
As discussed, offenders have no constitutional travel rights and states have no constitutional obligations to open their doors to offenders from other states. Thus, ICAOS is the only mechanism by which states can regulate the interstate movement of adult…
Compact – means the Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision.
I. Authority The Executive Committee is vested with the power to act on behalf of the Interstate Commission during periods when the Interstate Commission is not in session… The Executive Committee oversees the day-to-day activities managed by the…
(a) Acceptance, rejection or termination of supervision of an offender under this compact shall be made only with the involvement and concurrence of a state’s compact administrator or the compact administrator’s designated deputies. (b) All formal written…
These are the processes involved with withdrawing cases and individual compact activities. Withdrawing Cases and Individual Activities The function to withdraw an entire case is now separate from the function to withdraw an individual activity. This…
The Compact Workload search remembers the criteria you used in your last search every time you log in to ICOTS. This is to help users that perform the same search over and over again be efficient. Sometimes, it's easy to forget that you left a drop…
I get an error when trying to create a compact action request for a case from both the Assistants tab and the Offender Profile. Compact action requests can only be sent on cases in which a sending and receiving state user has been assigned. The sending…
Against this backdrop, concerned parties proposed a new Compact to the states. Defined in Article I, the purpose of the Compact provided: [T]he framework for the promotion of public safety and protect the rights of victims through the control and…
The ICAOS creates an Interstate Commission to oversee the operations of the Compact nationally, enforce its provisions on the member states, and resolve any disputes that may arise between the states. The Commission is comprised of one voting…
Compact Administrator – means the individual in each compacting state appointed under the terms of this compact and responsible for the administration and management of the state's supervision and transfer of offenders subject to the terms of this compact…
The following are key features of the ICAOS: The creation of a formal Interstate Commission comprised of Commissioners representing each of the member states and vested with full voting rights, the exercise of which is binding on the respective state.…
Published December 19, 2018 At the request of the Interstate Commission for Adult Offender Supervision’s (ICAOS) Executive Committee, the following legal analysis has been prepared in order to serve as a resource documenting the legal implications of the…
Find out why reviewing and assigning activities should take place from within the Compact Workload Screen. * ATTENTION SUPERVISORS * Most functions you use are accessed via the Compact Workload. The Supervisor role in ICOTS is for reviewing outgoing…
This on-demand training module explains basic ICOTS functionality including user roles, workflow and offender management. Information on common user login errors is also provided. Time to complete this module is approximately 20 minutes.
Cases are deleted from the system or moved to historical status in three ways: The supervisory authority, or location of the offender, determines whether the assigned user in the Sending State or Receiving State can initiate the removal. Remove the case (…
(a) States shall use the forms or electronic information system authorized by the commission. (b) Section (a) shall not be construed to prohibit written, electronic or oral communication between compact offices. History: Adopted November 3, 2003,…
The Compact Clause of the U.S. Constitution states, “No State shall, without the consent of Congress, . . . enter into any agreement or Compact with another State . . . .” U.S. CONST. art. I, § 10, cl. 3. Though a strict reading of the Compact Clause…
Congressional consent can significantly change the nature of an interstate Compact. “[W]here Congress has authorized the States to enter into a cooperative agreement, and where the subject matter of that agreement is an appropriate subject for…
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