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Established in 1937 with the purpose of regulating the movement of probationers and parolees across state lines, the Interstate Commission for Adult Offender Supervision (ICAOS) is enacted in all 50 states and three U.S. territories (District of Columbia, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico). Revised in 2002, the compact grants states the authority to track supervised individuals who move across state lines, thereby enhancing public safety and accountability. ICAOS has evolved into a powerful and adaptive tool for ensuring cooperative action among the states. Its purpose is to establish and enforce regulations, provide training, facilitate the collection and sharing of data, and perform other essential tasks to ensure that supervised individuals maintain continuity when relocating to another state.

Mission Statement

The Interstate Commission for Adult Offender Supervision will guide the transfer of supervised individuals in a manner that promotes effective supervision strategies consistent with public safety, accountability, and victims’ rights.

Compact Organization

Governor appointed commissioners in each state act on behalf of the state, region, and broader national interest to advance the commission’s mission. Each commissioner holds one vote on the commission, using it to establish bylaws, rules and regulations, operating policies, future initiatives, technological advancements, and compliance enforcement. Every other year serves as a rule-making period for the national body; however, rules may also be established or amended through a special meeting. In both cases, the legislative process mandates public notice and a period of public comment preceding the open meetings that decide the outcome of proposed rules or amendments. The Executive Committee, composed of commissioners elected by their peers, represents the commission when it is not in session. Through the bylaws, rules, and processes established by commissioners, the national office conducts research, provides advice, and implements commission directives. The national office provides comprehensive support to the commission through the maintenance of its technological infrastructure, enforcement of regulations, administration of reporting mechanisms, and dissemination of training materials. These resources are essential to facilitating the seamless and effective transfer of supervised individuals between states, territories, and districts within the U.S.

Tools of the Compact

A clear mission, distinct rule-making processes, defined authority, compliance audits, expansive and interactive training materials, uniform data standards, and innovative technology are all tools that contribute to the commission’s success. The statutory language adopted in each state provides a clear definition of the Commission’s mission and specifies its authority to regulate members through rules that carry the force and effect of federal law. The commission’s achievements are not attributed to any single person or group. Its success is collaborative and shared collectively by its commissioners, deputy compact administrators, stakeholders, and national office staff. Together, they make significant contributions to public safety by developing best practices for programs and processes that support the criminal justice system. The commission puts an emphasis on evidence-based practice and continuous process improvement, exploring solutions to enhance supervision strategies and improve outcomes for supervised individuals and the public. Through years of work and refinement, the Commission now possesses a stable and prominent data system that processes more than 234,000 incoming and outgoing cases per year. That same system provides auditable and shared data between state, local and national officials who seek to promote public safety interests.

Brief History

A shared concern among states regarding the movement of supervised individuals across state lines led to establishing the first interstate agreement for the supervision of probationers and parolees in 1937. This agreement, known as the Interstate Compact of the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers, was the sole authority for regulating the transfer of supervision across state boundaries for almost 70 years. However, as the 21st Century began, with over 4.5 million individuals on community supervision and more than 200,000 transferring to other states, it became evident that the Compact required significant revisions. Under the 1937 Compact, managing individuals on community supervision became increasingly complex. State and local governments enacted measures to address high-risk individuals and ensure compliance with requirements for sex offender registration and victim notification. However, states encountered challenges in meeting those requirements, as well as tracking supervised individuals and ensuring their transfers and returns were properly documented and managed. Additionally, the compact lacked the ability to enforce compliance, and the exchange of case information was slow and unreliable. Through a partnership with the Council of State Governments and National Institute of Corrections, a drafting team of state officials revised the model language of the Compact, which led to the creation of the national commission and the inclusion of a mechanism for enforcement. The revised Compact was the result of nearly a year of public hearings, research and informed dialogue among legislators, attorneys general, parole and probation officials and victims’ rights groups. It became effective on the passing of the 35th state in June 2002.

Annual Reports

FY 2023 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2023

FY 2022 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2022

FY 2021 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2021

FY 2020 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2020

FY 2019 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2019

FY 2018 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2018

FY 2017 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2017

FY 2016 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2016

FY 2015 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2015

FY 2014 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2014

FY 2013 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2013

FY 2012 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2012

FY 2011 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2011

FY 2010 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2010

FY 2009 Annual Report / ICAOS Annual Report covering FY 2009

2007 Annual Report / 2007 ICAOS Annual Report

2006 Annual Report / 2006 ICAOS Annual Report

2005 Annual Report / 2005 ICAOS Annual Report

2004 Annual Report / 2004 ICAOS Annual Report

2003 Annual Report / 2003 ICAOS Annual Report